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Text Box: Rahmat Sadeghi, Professor of Physical Chemistry                                                                                                                                            
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Department of Chemistry

University of Kurdistan

Text Box:  Lab. Instruments

Anton Paar DSA 5000

Measuring range

Density: 0 to 3 g/cm3

Sound velocity: 1000 to 2000 m/s

Temperature: 0 to 70 C

Repeatability s.d.

Density: 110-6 g/cm3

Sound velocity: 0.1 m/s

Temperature: 0.001 C


Density: 510-6 g/cm3

Sound velocity: 0.5 m/s

Description: The DSA 5000 simultaneously determines two physically independent properties with one sample. The two-in-one instrument is equipped with a density cell at a pulse-echo speed of sound cell. Both the cells are temperature controlled by a built-in Peltier thermostat.

Vapor Pressure Osmometer K-7000

The Vapor Pressure Osmometer K-7000 (from KNAUER) is best suited for:

- Determination of osmotic coefficient and solvent activity of fluids

- Molecular weight determination up to 40 000 g/mol

Cell temperature range: 20 130 C

Accuracy of cell temperature: 1x10-3 K

Accuracy of water activity: 2x10-4

Description: The Vapor Pressure Osmometer measurement principle is based on vapor pressure reduction in solutions corresponding to Raoults law. Two identical thermistors are located in a cell where the gas phase is saturated with solvent vapor. If both thermistors carry drops of pure solvent, the difference in resistance between the two is zero. During measurement, one of the solvent droplets is replaced with a drop of solution (with reduced vapor pressure). Now solvent vapor will condense on the solution droplet and thus vapor pressure increases until it equals the pressure of the pure solvent droplet. Due to the heat of condensation, the thermistor containing solution droplet will be warmed. The change in temperature changes the resistance of the thermistor. A bridge circuit measures the resistance difference of both thermistors.

Anton Paar Abbemat Refractometer

Abbemat Refractometer measures the refractive index of::

- Turbid, colored or opaque samples

- All samples from liquids to pastes, polymers to solids

- Liquids containing air bubbles or solid particles

Temperature range: 10 C to 70 C

Resolution of Refractive Index: 0.000001 nD

Accuracy of Refractive Index: 0.00002 nD

Description: Measurements of the refractive index have been used to identify and characterize liquid and solid samples, for example to measure the concentration of solutions. From the refractive index we can also calculate other parameters, like freezing point or specific gravity. Knowledge of the refractive index allows us to control the quality of multi-component mixtures and check samples for purity. The refractive index measurements can be suitable for all industries from pharmaceuticals, chemicals, flavors and fragrances to beverages and food.

NETZSCH DSC 204 F1 Phoenix

Temperature range: -85 C to 400 C

Analyser Software: Proteus

Accuracy of Enthalpy ˂ 1%

Description: The thermal effects of phase and chemical transformations and also the heat capacity of materials can be studied by Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC). The concept for the DSC 204 F1 Phoenix measuring cell is based on a homogeneous heating of the disc-sensor system for stable and reproducible baselines, also on the effective, low-consumption cooling system. Typical applications of DSC 204 F1 Phoenix:

- Melting-crystallization

- Decomposition onset

- Phase diagrams

- Glass transitions

- Polymorphism

- Solid-solid transitions

- Liquid crystal transitions

- Specific heat capacity

831 Coulometric Karl Fischer Titrator (ΩMetrohm)

Water content Precision

10 g to 1,000 g 3 g

>1,000 g 0.3% or better

Description: Karl Fischer titration is a classic titration method in analytical chemistry that uses coulometric or volumetric titration to determine trace amounts of water in a sample. The popularity of the Karl Fischer titration is due in large part to several practical advantages that it holds over other methods of moisture determination, including: High accuracy and precision, Selectivity for water, Small sample quantities required, Easy sample preparation, Short analysis duration, Nearly unlimited measuring range (1ppm to 100%), Suitability for analyzing: Solids, Liquids and Gases, Independence of presence of other volatiles ,Suitability for automation, Linearity - single-point calibration, no calibration curves necessary. These Karl Fischer coulometers ensure accurate and reproducible results, even for water contents in the lower microgram range.

UV- VIS Spectrophotometer SPEKOL 2000 (analytik jena)


Description: The UV VIS spectrophotometer SPEKOL 2000 is a double beam system with variable slit width in a spectral range of 190 - 1100 nm with an outstanding price-performance ratio. The SPEKOL 2000, with its variable slit widths of 0.5, 1, 2 and 4 mm in the 190-1100 nm range with no warm-up phase, is suitable for the most diverse applications and daily routine. Measurement of transmission, absorption, concentration via factor, simple standard or linear calibration is simple and quick to implement with this system.

Anton Paar Gyromat Digital Automatic Polarimeter


Optical Rotation range : 48.0000 ,

Resolution 0.0010 angular scale

Specific Rotation resolution: 0.001

Description: The Gyromat is an automatic circular polarimeter with a resolution of 0.001 0Optical Rotation and an excellent accuracy better than 0.0030 over the entire measuring range. The accuracy can be verified by certified quartz standards. The standard model operates at a wavelength at 589 nm complying with international standards and pharmacopeia. For research applications in the pharmaceutical industries, it can be supplied with up to six standard measuring wavelengths in the visible and UV range.

Some applications:

Chemical industry

 Purity control and determination of concentrations

 Analysis of optically-active components (qualitative and quantitative)

 Determination of changes in the configuration

 Monitoring chemical processes

Pharmaceutical industry

 Characterization of new synthetic substances

Food industry

* Purity control

* Quality control

Tensiometer / K100MK2 (Kruss Germany)

Measuring range

SFT/ IFT : 1-1000 mN/m

Temperature: -10 to 130 C


SFT/IFT: 0.001 mN/m

Temperature: 0.01 C

Descriptions: Force Tensiometer K100 performs high-precision, automatic and reliable measurements of surface tension and interfacial tension, critical micelle concentration (CMC) and contact angle on solids, fibers and powders. With high-quality components and a uniquely wide range of methods, the instrument carries out many tasks in the field of surfactant analysis and wetting measurement for our quality assurance or research.

Anton Paar AMVn Microviscometer


Measuring range

Viscosity: 0.3 to 2500 mPa.s

Temperature: 5 to 135 C


Viscosity: < 0.1 %

Temperature: 0.01 C


Viscosity: < 0.5 %

Temperature: ˂ 0.05 C

Descriptions: AMVn is a falling ball viscometer which measures the rolling time of a ball through transparent and opaque liquids according to Hppler's falling ball principle. Measurement is possible with as little as 150 L sample volume. Results are given as relative, kinematic or dynamic viscosity. AMVn is compact and economical, and saves you space in the lab. You can also use the quick and easy analysis of the optional Windows software to calculate the dilute solution viscosity, intrinsic viscosity, relative viscosity and other properties of polymer solutions.

Metrohm (model 712) Conductometer


Measuring range

Conductivity: 0 S/cm to 2000mS/cm

Temperature: -170 to 500 C

Sensitivity of conductivity: 0.1 %

Descriptions: Sophisticated conductometer; measures conductivity, temperature and Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), can also be used for the indication of conductometric titrations.

Isopiestic instrument

Description: The isopiestic method is a simple but highly accurate method of measuring the vapor pressure or the solvent activity of a solution that contain nonvolatile solutes. An isopiestic apparatus contains two or more solutions in contact with each other through the vapor space and in thermal contact through some conducting medium. The vapor space is evacuated so that it will contain only water vapor and the solutions approach equilibrium by transferring solvent mass through distillation. At equilibrium the temperature and pressure of all phases must be equal, and the chemical potentials of the solvent in each of the solutions within the close isopiestic system are identical:

The solvent activity is related to the solvent chemical potential by:

At equilibrium, equality of the solvent chemical potential implied the equality of the solvent activity. The solvent activity can be obtained from one or more standard solutions in the isopiestic system.

CP225D & CP124S Sartorius analytical balance


Precision of CP225D: 0.00001 g

Precision of CP124S : 0.0001 g